Saturday, November 30, 2019
Musical Controversy There is a kind of music, which is commonly referred to as ?Pop? music. It attracts a variety of Americans of very different geographical, racial, and economical backgrounds. Some of the most popular artists these days that are considered ?Pop? are N'Sync, Britney Spears (who, having recently turned eighteen, doesn't seem to mind letting the guys know that she's legal now), Cristina Aguilera, Eminem, Limp Bizkit, and Tupac Shakur. It would take a thousand pages to describe the entire commercial and cultural aspects of the music industry, so I will talk about the hip-hop community. Some hip-hop is commonly referred to as ?Pop? music, simply because it is popular with a wide variety of crowds. I intend to show you how the different types of crowds under the Pop category interact with one another, especially at popular awards ceremonies, such as the recent MTV Video Music Awards '00. MTV's largest show and party of every year is their Video Music Awards, celebrated in 1999 on 9/9/99. In 2000, it was highlighted by performances by Eminem (aka Marshall Mathers), N'Sync, a side of Britney Spears which brought a chuckle from a few early Madonna haters, and others. In an interview with reporters before the show, 26 year-old white rapper Eminem stated ?It ain't often you get so many people that I don't like into one room together.? Eminem's relationship with the music industry is a strange one ? you either love him or you hate him. He openly hates gays, women, and children. He is being petitioned to be arrested by a national gay rights activist group for his homophobic lyrics and attitude. So, you ask, why is he such a loved character if he is so ?shady His most recent album, The Marshall Mathers LP, sold 1.7 million copies its first week ? the most for any single artist in history. Also notable for comment is that he achieved this at a time when illegal music piracy is so commonly practiced that the government cannot even begin to regulate it. This is another issue however. The recent media chase over Shawn Fanning, an innocent-looking 19 year-old college dropout, is amazing for one who has not been along for the ride the whole time. Shawn Fanning released Napster in 1999, it was one of the top 10 most quickly downloaded programs of 1999. It's ability to ?share? music files, called mp3s, digitally over the Internet made it become absolutely essential for anyone between the ages of 12-24 to have. Gone were the days when you had to listen to the radio or buy a single ? now you could just go online, wait anywhere from two to thirty minutes, and have the song that you wanted, for play on your own computer or to burn to a blank CD. In steps ancient rock legends, Metallica. Metallica drummer, Lars Ulrich, took a stand against Napster. He claims that it is violating copyright laws set by the United States. Fanning's creation, by allowing fans to disperse their music to one another, is equivalent to stealing right from the band. In a sense, he is correct. In re ality, if it weren't for the popularity that the program has already achieved, it would have been shut down long ago without a multi-million dollar court case. Now it becomes just one of the many media-hyped incidents in the music industry. The pop music industry is a complicated web of underground culture. Because America is such a diverse nation, the music industry reflects the diversity of the country. From white rappers to thirteen year-old black rappers, to seventy year old country singers, there is definitely a type of music that most people enjoy. Bibliography: Marshall Mathers, spoken in pre-show interview before MTV VMA 2000
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Social Work Social Policy And Social Welfare Social Work Essay Essay Example Social Work Social Policy And Social Welfare Social Work Essay Paper Social Work Social Policy And Social Welfare Social Work Essay Paper With mention to alterations in Government policy and political orientations of public assistance, debate the significance of the displacement from Victorian Pauper to 21st century service user and its impact on societal work pattern and values. This assignment has used a historical timeline of Governmental alterations to policies and Torahs as a background to debate the displacement from Victorian Pauper to 21st century service user. The divide between the rich and hapless has ever been an issue that different authoritiess have faced, covering with it otherwise, for illustration Clement Attlee s labour Government in 1945 introduced the public assistance province to give every British citizen screen, irrespective of income or deficiency of it. Those who lacked occupations and places would be helped. The definition of a Pauper harmonizing to the Collins lexicon is person who is comparatively hapless, in comparing to the general population or historically eligible for public charity. The definition of a service user is person who at some point uses or receives wellness or societal attention services. ( General Social Care Council ) The term service user is criticised, as critics Adams et Al ( 2009 ) believe it focuses on one component of the person, connoting dependence, without taking into history other facets and argue that the term places the service user in a disempowered place in their relationship with a professional, with power shacking with this professional. The National Network of Service Users: Determining our lives nevertheless sees the term service user as positive, it s an person who uses the services, they confer power making a stronger voice and holding a greater ability to determine services. ( Levin 2004 ) Modern British societal policy has its foundation in the Poor Laws, dating from 1598 to 1948. The Poor Law ( 1601 ) provided a mandatory hapless rate and helped put the hapless to work. However as the Parish was the basic country of disposal, and Torahs were enforced otherwise from parish to parish with no set criterions of attention doing incompatibilities between countries. The Poor Law amendment act ( 1834 ) modified the bing system. Poor Law Unions were introduced, parishes were grouped together, and those Unions would be the duty of a Board of Guardians. The Guardians were responsible for the disposal of hapless alleviation for their vicinity, instead than go forthing the duty of disposal in the custodies of single parishes and townships. Workhouses were introduced and encouraged, one workhouse in each brotherhood to give hapless alleviation. This Act stated that no able bodied individual was to have any other aid other than in the workhouse. The intent of the workhouse was to allow persons come in and go forth as they liked and they would have free nutrient and adjustme nt, nevertheless as clip passed concern grew with respect to the seeming overuse of the workhouse. As a consequence the eligibility standards for entry to the workhouse was so altered. Life in the workhouse was to be made every bit barbarous as it was outdoors. The deplorable being offered, and the stigma attached to being an inmate , ensured that merely the genuinely deprived used them. A jail manner system of segregation for work forces and adult females meant that even households had to be separated, wholly different from twenty-first Century societal work values which espouse a stronger committedness to maintaining households together, with kid protection services and kid public assistance bureaus supplying support to guarantee household saving. ( Payne, 2005 ) It was in 1869 that The Charity Organisation Society ( COS ) was formed to unite the many smaller beginnings of alleviation and do proviso more efficient and effectual. The COS perceived that charitable aid was needed and believed that their purpose was to make all households, but were diffident how the money had antecedently been spent. COS set out a strategy of fiscal aid, presenting local commissions, who so raised financess and distributed these to households in demand. Similar to many charities today, there are still many households who do nt inquire for aid because of faith, linguistic communication, pride or because they are non cognizant that aid may be available. ( Family Action ) The purpose of COS was to carry charities to meet their resources, which might so be distributed more consistently. However the persons helped had to be deemed capable of going ego back uping. Worthiness was considered before any charitable aid was given. Those who were nt considered worthy were le ft to destitution, the Society efficaciously make up ones minding that as they deemed there to be no hope for their salvation, that to assist them would be a waste of limited resources which would be better spent elsewhere with persons or households who could later raise themselves out of poorness and dependance. ( Campling, 1996 ) The COS theoretical account was open uping in taking into history the effects if they helped every person, as they thought this would take to dependency and exaggeration in order to have money. COS was besides formed with the aim of accomplishing a lessening in the charitable outgo as a consequence of greater efficiency and the economic system of graduated table, and in this sense the COS reflected the wider political orientation of the industrial revolution. Current Social Work objectives likewise seek to accomplish value for money , with the Audit committee specifying value for money as the best possible balance of economic system, efficiency and effectivity. Whilst the twenty-first century societal worker enterprises to cover reasonably with the demands of everyone, however, the distribution of demands is uneven and alterations invariably. To guarantee quality is consistent attention program reappraisals are monitored and service users may be involved in quality circles, prosecuting them in make up ones minding what s best. Direct payment strategies are besides offered to a minority group of service users to allow them make up ones mind on and custom-make their ain soci etal attention. The chief job Social Services face is the possible impact of the dynamic and variable economic and political environment in which they must work. Whilst seeking to supply individualized attention bundles they have to guarantee that it s effectual in regard to cost. Besides there is turning acknowledgment that a figure of minority groups may be excluded from accessing services such as Social Work services and, besides those services which have antecedently non been provided in culturally appropriate ways. ( Making ends meet, 2010 ) Appropriate stairss will hence necessitate to be taken to implement anti prejudiced pattern and anti oppressive pattern, when sing how to supply aid in accessing services for minority groups. The COS rapidly found that more than fiscal assistance was needed to assist paupers. Emotional and other practical aid was besides required, for illustration aid with finding employment. COS voluntaries were trained to offer such extra aid and, hence, the formal preparation offered by COS can be seen as the precursor of modern societal work preparation and makings. They adopted an attack which attempted to analyze the job. Working with the person and household to assist them accomplish a permanent solution so all could be kept in their familiar environments. This attack was really clip consuming, and the attack the worker took to look into the person was really obnoxious. This attack is the footing of the current Social Work casework attack which is now extremely criticised. Holman ( 1993 ) suggests that the casework attack merely masks societal and political duties in person s lives, hence assisting to keep their state of affairs. There are now other attacks that focus on cut downing inequality. Which investigate the societal and political grounds every bit good as the person s as to why they are in poorness. A new pronunciamento for Social Work now highlights the demand to utilize a aggregation of attacks as the demand to battle poorness and favoritism is greater than of all time. Many who tried to utilize the COS principles found it hard to ignore persons who needed aid. Other attacks were recently introduced to assist more persons. The Settlement House Movement ( 1884 ) was one of these. Its rules focused on university voluntaries working with the hapless in their trim clip, offering instruction. Its purpose was to accomplish common regard between the categories. This attack focused on authorising the hapless, assisting them to assist themselves. Society besides benefitted from this theoretical account. It focused on a more structured analysis of poorness and its impact on human behavior by rehearsing intercessions at a community degree. This is needed now to assist little communities and the persons within it. The nature of societal work pattern so changed and focused on persons. A important component was hearing client s voices and the uncomparable cognition of the professionals working with them to assist whichever manner they could. ( Adams et al, 2009 ) Using these theoretical accounts the Government laid the footing of the hereafter societal services. The major concern being that all countries should be given the same services. These new services were provided off from The Poor Law to hedge the association. Current Social Work still has its incompatibilities, nevertheless the White Paper Tackling Health Inequalities Programme of Action ( Department of Health, 2003 ) , focuses on a figure of ways to equalize entree to healthcare, for illustration working with people who face overlapping wellness jobs for case older people who have ill wellness and are in poorness. Social Workers are concentrating on secondary bar, as this type of bar can impact more persons. A major study produced sing the public assistance of persons was the Beveridge Report ( Department of Health, 1942 ) . This study focused on how Britain could be rebuilt after the war. In 1945 labor was elected and promised to present a public assistance province. The public assistance province involved presenting new services. These included the National Health Services and Housing Acts. The public assistance province was produced to promote the proviso of services for the populace. ( Laybourn, 1995 ) Glasby ( 2005 ) looked at old reforms and how the hereafter would be in big societal attention. It evaluated all of import studies to see how societal work could be improved. One study that wedged policy and pattern during the 1960 s was the Seebohm study ( 1968 ) . This study highlighted the jobs of poorness and was tasked to reexamine the administration and duties of the Local Authority Social Services in England every bit good as to see what alterations were desirable to procure an effectual household service. ( Seebohm, 1968, pg11. ) Prior to this study Social Work was spread across assorted Local Authorities and different Government subdivisions. This caused insufficiencies in the quality of proviso. Access was really hard. For illustration, scope and quality of proviso of services were inconsistent besides the Seebohm Report highlighted a hapless coordination of information between these services. The study recommended a new Local Authority section supplying a community based and household orientated service, which would be available for all . When this recommendation was brought into action new Social Services Departments were formed. The Seebohm Report did highlight potency jobs. It stated that holding separate sections for kids and grownups might later do it hard to handle the household s demands as a whole. The Barclay Report ( 1982 ) looked into the function of a societal worker. In its gap line it stated that excessively much was expected of societal workers. It found that it was a profession that was confused about its function and because of intense media examination was fighting with work burden. It found that there was an on-going demand for societal workers to carry through many maps including advancing community webs, working with other services and moving as an advocator for clients. The study did knock societal work sections for taking a reactive stance towards societal jobs, covering with those demands which are forced upon their attending but neglecting to develop overall programs which link the voluntary, statutory and private services in an country into a coherent program which is still a job today. ( Department of Health, 1982, pg.38 ) Social Services Departments find it hard to assist every demand as they do nt hold illimitable resources. They need to utilize other ser vices and work with them closely, the aid of Interprofessional instruction will guarantee that other professionals have an apprehension of societal workers functions. The Barclay Report produced really similar recommendations to that of the Seebohm Report ( 1968 ) . Although it highlighted that the community attack may hold more success now, as there is a greater capacity for persons to be more independent and do their ain determinations. The community attack focuses on the local community and societal workers would detect persons in the context of their community. This attack uses local Centres and pools resources, making less impact on the Social Work services so their resources can be spread further. Reports such as these have highlighted how of import good societal work is, and how much it is needed. There are many jobs involved in the profession. There is still stigma attached to the term service user merely as there was to the term pauper. Whilst researching the different Acts of the Apostless and public assistance political orientations that have been introduced throughout the timeline I have used ( see paragraph one, page one ) I have found that persons still have jobs accessing aid. There are households who still may be disinclined to inquire for aid because of the stigma of making so. New attacks have introduced service user engagement by inquiring them what help they want and specifying the quality of aid they receive. A recent study by Beresford, Shamash, Forrest and Turner ( 2007 ) researched service users future vision for grownup services. They found that the procedure of accessing societal attention was often negative for service users furthermore the appraisals wer e really dependent on the quality of the staff transporting it out. All societal workers should work to one high criterion. It should nt be a lottery of if you get a good one or non. A cosmopolitan tool could be implemented so that all service users were asked the same inquiries and could foreground their specific jobs and demands whilst utilizing the tool. Service users besides highlighted the fact that entree to their societal worker was low and many of the service users questioned had spreads in their services doing them experience insecure. Reports researched for this assignment have all found that service users know what they want and can easy foreground the jobs they face or have had antecedently. One study found that while public assistance bureaucratism has been condemned by authoritiess for a long piece, service users still place jobs ( Determining Our Lifes, 2007 ) . There is still societal exclusion. Social Services Departments may lend to it as they help persons merely plenty, happening the quickest manner to assist them non needfully the best manner in the long tally because of finite resources. Using different attacks, for illustration the community attack would assist at different degrees so less accent is on Social Services Departments resources. Huge betterments are still needed. For illustration kid poorness is acquiring worst. The Report Monitoring poorness and societal exclusion ( 2009 ) found that kids who live in low-income families, where at least one grownup plants, is at the highest it has of all ti me been. This addition has affected the Governments kid poorness marks. The recession affected making the marks greatly. It is critical now to retrieve from the recession but besides to retrieve from underlying jobs that were at that place antecedently before the economic downswing began. Reports like Determining Our Lifes ( 2007 ) found that service users feel more responsible and confident about the aid they are having when they have been more involved in the determination processes. A study by Beresford et Al, ( 2007 ) found that service users would wish a watchdog with a board of service users and professionals so they could be involved in judging the quality of attention they receive. The Race Equality Act ( 2006 ) sets the context for anti- discriminatory pattern within which societal workers operate. However, whilst it could be critiqued that some advancement has been made as a consequence with regard to those of different civilization and faith, go oning inequalities would propose much more advancement remains to be made. To reason societal work has changed significantly and come on to assist all persons demands to go on. However as a profession it needs a larger voice to speak about the jobs they face hence acquiring excess aid to guarantee that service users and paupers have even fewer similarities. There has been a great displacement from pauper to service user. Service users have much more freedom and rights now. Albeit there are still similarities which need to be focused on to better the services available. Social Service Departments besides need to decline to allow policies be imposed when they do nt better on what is already implemented. Rights are now profiting service users but we need to guarantee this continues.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Expert's Guide to the AP Psychology Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Taking AP Exams can be stressful, but if you know what to expect on test day, you can eliminate a lot of that anxiety. The AP Psychology exam is one of the more popular AP tests, and it has a pretty straightforward format and scoring system. In this article, I'll tell you what's on the AP Psychology test, how it's graded, and which prep methods you should use to get a great score. How Is the AP Psychology Exam Structured? The AP Psych test consists of two sections: a multiple-choice section and a free-response section. Section 1: Multiple Choice Here is a quick rundown of the multiple-choice section format: Number of Questions: 100 Time: 70 minutes Scoring: Worth two-thirds of your final AP Psych score Questions on the multiple-choice section will typically ask you to do the following: Use psychological terms to label specific scenarios Show that you understand concepts from psychological theories Understand the scientific and physiological basis of psychological theories and disorders, and give appropriate explanations Show that you understand the scientific method and how to interpret findings from research studies Section 2: Free Response Here is an overview of the free-response section on the AP Psychology test: Number of Questions: 2 Time: 50 minutes Scoring: Worth one-third of your final AP Psych score Free-response AP Psych questions will ask you to do the following: Relate different content areas within the realm of psychology Evaluate and analyze theoretical perspectives and psychological concepts Answer in complete sentences and follow the directions of the prompt Overview of AP Psychology Test Overall, AP Psychology is one of the shorter AP exams, clocking in at just two hours in total. The exam will take place on Thursday, May 9, 2019, at noon. Ah, May. The flowers are blooming, the birds are chirping- and the rustle of freshly opened AP test booklets fills the air. How Is the AP Psychology Exam Scored? Now that you understand the structure of the AP Psychology exam, it's time to learn how your final AP score is calculated. As I mentioned, the multiple-choice section is worth two-thirds (66.6%) of your score, and the free-response section is worth one-third (33.3%) of your score. For multiple choice, scoring is relatively simple. You get a point for every question you answer correctly. No points are deducted for incorrect answers or questions you left blank. You can earn a maximum of 100 points on the multiple-choice section. Free-response questions are reviewed by AP graders. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll get a score out of 7 or 8 for each of the two questions. Each of these scores is then multiplied by 3.125 so that together they make up one-third of your total raw score. Your raw score is then compared with the curve calculated by the College Board to see what score youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get on the final 1-5 AP scale. The following table offers estimated raw-to-AP-score conversions for the AP Psychology test. Keep in mind that each year the curve is slightly different, so this will lead to a rough estimate of your score, not an exact prediction. Raw Composite Score AP Score Percentage of Students Earning Each Score (2018) 113-150 5 21.2% 93-112 4 26.3% 77-92 3 18.1% 65-76 2 14.5% 0-64 1 19.9% Source: The College Board For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say you got 55 questions right on the multiple-choice section and scored a four on one free-response question and a five on the other. This would add up to a raw score of 83 because 55 + (4*3.125) + (5*3.125)= 83.125. Based on the chart above, this score would then translate to a 3 for a final AP score. Topics and Example Questions on the AP Psychology Test In this section, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give you some real-life examples of test questions so you can get a better idea of what the AP Psychology test is actually like. As a preface to the questions, here are the topics youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see on AP Psych, ordered from most to least common. You should consult this list to make sure that you've fully reviewed the content for the test and aren't missing anything important (especially in the most common topic areas). Topic % of Questions Research Methods (how experiments are conducted, statistics, ethics) 8-10% Biological Bases of Behavior (anatomy, genetics, medical techniques) 8-10% Cognition (memory, language, problem-solving) 8-10% Social Psychology (group dynamics, attribution processes, conformity/compliance/obedience, cultural influences, antisocial behavior, attitudes) 8-10% Abnormal Psychology (disorders, theories of origin, diagnoses) 7-9% Developmental Psychology (nature-nurture psychological dynamics, general theories of development, research methods) 7-9% Learning (types of conditioning, social learning, cognitive processes) 7-9% Sensation and Perception (perceptual processes, sensory mechanisms, attention, Signal Detection Theory) 6-8% Motivation and Emotion (theories and biological bases of motivation and emotion, stress, social motives) 6-8% Personality (personality theories, assessment techniques, growth and adjustment) 5-7% Testing and Individual Differences (standardization and norms, validity of testing models, measuring intelligence, ethics in testing) 5-7% Treatment of Psychological Disorders (types of therapy and treatment approaches) 5-7% States of Consciousness (sleep and dreaming, hypnosis, psychoactive drug effects) 2-4% History and Approaches (history of psychology, different fields of psychology) 2-4% Source: The College Board Multiple Here is a sample question from the official AP Psychology course description: Which of the following behaviors is most clearly associated with Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s concrete operational stage? A. Sally thinks everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite color is blue because it is her favorite color.B. Tom received the highest grade in his philosophy course.C. Gracie forgets about her toy because it is under her blanket.D. Nikos can consider both the height and width of a container.E. Ava does not like being around unfamiliar people. To answer this question, you need to be familiar with PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological theory and the behaviors that correspond with each of his proposed stages. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of development has four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operations. The concrete operational stage typically happens between the ages of 7 and 11. This stage is when a child becomes capable of applying logical and operational thought to physical objects but isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite capable of abstract logic yet. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go through the possibilities! Choice A doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anything to do with the concrete operational stage, so we can eliminate that answer. Choice B seems as though itÃ¢â¬â¢s beyond the concrete operational stage. Philosophy involves a lot of abstract reasoning! This choice can be eliminated as well. The child in Choice C is too underdeveloped. Kids in the concrete operational stage have spatial awareness, so we can get rid of this one. Choice D seems to make sense! This is the stage at which kids start to understand logically that a tall, skinny glass might hold the same amount of water as a short, wide glass. Choice E appears to be unrelated to the concrete operational stage, so we can eliminate it. Therefore, we can conclude that Choice D is the correct answer. "I ga ga, therefore I goo goo." Tom, please stop. Free The following free-response question was on the 2012 AP Psychology exam: 1a. Annabelle is planning to apply to college but has not yet decided where she will apply. Describe how the following psychological concepts and terms relate to her choice. Availability heuristic Compliance Prefrontal cortex Prospective memory 1b. Explain how the following psychological concepts could relate to how well Annabelle adapts when she begins her college career. Agoraphobia Crystallized intelligence Ethnocentrism For this free-response question, you must understand what each of the terms mean and how they relate to this specific situation. To earn your first point on part a, you have to explain how the availability heuristic might have affected AnnabelleÃ¢â¬â¢s college decision. The scoring guidelines state, "Students must establish that AnnabelleÃ¢â¬â¢s decision-making processes or her choices about college, or both, are influenced by information that comes most readily to mind." For example, you might say that Annabelle decided to apply to UCLA because her parents had gone there and talk to her about it frequently, so this option was at the forefront of her mind in the decision-making process. You would then go on to relate the three remaining terms to Annabelle's college-search process. You could earn a maximum of four points in part a of this question (one point for each description). Part b asks you to explain how certain psychological concepts might relate to Annabelle's adaptation to her new college environment. For agoraphobia, the scoring guidelines say, "Students must explain how AnnabelleÃ¢â¬â¢s fear inhibits her from engaging in college life." This could be something like describing how AnnabelleÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of crowds caused her to skip orientation activities and miss out on the chance to make new friends. You'd need to do the same for the other two terms to earn the full three points for part b. For a more detailed description of how responses to this question were scored, you can review the scoring guidelines here. "Does free will exist, or am I just a made-up person who exists solely to provide context for a question on an exam taken by beings in an alternate universe?" Oh, Annabelle, save it for college. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Best Way to Prep for the AP Psychology Exam? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re aware of the structure and content of the AP Psychology exam, you can use specific prep methods to help you succeed on it. Here are five tips guaranteed to give you a higher chance of earning a great AP Psych score. #1: Take Practice Tests The best way to prepare for standardized tests like this one is to take practice tests so that you have a good idea of where your weaknesses lie. Practice tests will also help you get used to the format of the AP Psych test, as well as the types of questions it asks. The College Board offers practice free-response questions from previous years (up to 2017). You can also access three full-length official AP Psychology practice tests as free PDFS: 2012 AP Psychology Exam 1999 AP Psychology Exam 1994 AP Psychology Exam To simulate the real testing experience, I recommend printing out the test and writing/bubbling in your answers to the questions rather than doing them on the computer. You should also time yourself accurately so you can be sure you don't run out of time on the actual exam. After you take a practice test or two, review your answers to see which content areas gave you the most trouble. Focus on going over the topics for which you had the highest concentration of incorrect answers. #2: Use the Topic Breakdown Information For AP Psychology, we know exactly which topics will be covered and how frequently we can expect to see them on the test. This is valuable information you can use to your advantage when studying. Specifically, spend more time reviewing unfamiliar topics that are especially common on the exam. It's better to know the ins and outs of a high-frequency topic super well than to have only a rudimentary knowledge of two low-frequency topics. Prioritize wisely! A topic breakdown sounds almost like a topic breakdance! Am I relating to the youth yet? #3: Learn to Budget Your Time Appropriately This is something you can do in conjunction with taking practice tests. On the AP Psychology test, you only have about 40 seconds for each multiple-choice question. This means you have to be smart about skipping questions that are taking up too much of your time. If you take a practice test and find that youÃ¢â¬â¢re often running out of time, you might need to push yourself to work faster or move on from difficult questions more quickly. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also have just 25 minutes for each free-response question on the test. The good news is that free-response questions on AP Psychology are scored based on the information you provide and not on your mastery of essay format. In short, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to write an introduction and a conclusion, which will save you a lot of time. #4: Go Over Important Terms On the AP Psych exam, itÃ¢â¬â¢s crucial for you to know the meanings of key terms related to the course. Questions often ask you to explain how a scenario relates to a certain psychological concept. But if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember what the concept means, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to answer the question. There are lots of confusing terms in AP Psychology, which is why itÃ¢â¬â¢s so important that you take the time to compile them and go through them methodically when you study. This is especially true of terms you learned at the beginning of the school year, as they'll be less fresh in your mind when the time comes to take the test. #5: Avoid Cramming ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot to remember for AP Psychology, and you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t going to be able to stuff it all in your brain in one night. For courses like this that are memorization-heavy, itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to get in the habit of studying as you go along and taking the time to review old material periodically. If you can gradually build up your knowledge throughout the school year and avoid completely forgetting what you learned at the beginning of class, the exam will feel much less stressful for you. Every one or two months, do a comprehensive review of everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned so far to refresh your memory. You might be surprised by how little you have to study for the AP Psych test at the end of the school year when everyone else is freaking out! And remember, ladies, you're never too busy to throw on a little eye glitter between study sessions. Recap: What to Know About the AP Psychology Test The AP Psychology exam is a relatively short AP test. However, because it encompasses a variety of content areas, it's important to know all the key terms and psychological theories that are covered in the course. In order to succeed on this test, you must be able to connect specific psychological terminology to a wide range of different scenarios. Overall, AP Psychology is probably one of the easier AP exams, but that doesn't mean you should skip studying. Make sure you take official practice tests and are fully aware of the exam's format and content so you won't be caught off-guard on test day! What's Next? Still not sure if AP Psychology is the right choice for you? Learn more about AP classes and tests to see whether it's worth it to take them. You can also dip your toe in the AP Psych pool with this article about Stockholm Syndrome (something you'll likely learn about in AP Psych). What do AP scores mean for your future? Find out more about how AP credit works at colleges. Trying to plan out your schedule? Read this article to get a better idea of how many AP classes you should take based on your college goals. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Information Systems and Processing Controls - Assignment Example Moreover, they provide balances and checks that are only spotted on calculation errors in the business books, and the also the mismatched entry of items. According to Tyler (2013) found out that audit software aided the auditor in generating models and simulations that are of help to study the financial approach of the business, and how it can be restructured. In addition, the auditor can also use the model to judge the potential risk that is posed by the current system. The computer-assisted audits lead to increased accuracy of the audit results by reducing the overall time spent on transactions. It also lessens disruption to business activities by reducing the amount of documentation you need to retrieve, thereby saving your time and money. Tyler (2013) asserted that the program audit performed a wide variety of tasks like recalling calculated interest from invoices; analytical procedures; testing the configuration of the operating system; re-performing the calculations that have been done by the accounting systems entity. Subsequent advantages are; there are long-term economies, it reads the actual records, deals with large volumes of transactions. The schedules and reports that have been generated by the computer are more objective and professional thus enhancing communication of data. According to Wavomba (2010) reported that the organization gains assurance regarding the accuracy of the transactional data and the extent to which the business transactions adhere to controls and comply with policies. The consisted use of the automated transaction analysis and continuous monitoring enables real-time independent testing and validation of critical data. To sum up, it improves management of auditing procedures. Integrated test facility package is a quality control responsibility that utilizes, monitors, and controls the dummy test data through existing programs and checks the existence and adequacy ofÃ program data entry controls and processing controls (Koch, 2009).Ã
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Criminology - Essay Example It familiarizes students with the techniques, strategies and forms of writing used in the professional world. This course will increase studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of organizational writing and communications, including case analysis, data interpretation, problem solving and report writing. This also covers basic police correspondence, and regular police work requiring oral and written reports, investigation and interrogation, and many other police duties and responsibilities. Course Overview Welcome to CRJ302 Effective Professional Communications. The main purpose of this course is to improve communications skills, both oral and written. The secondary purpose is to improve the officer's ability to complete the reports and forms commonly used in the criminal justice system. The best way to improve communication skills is by practicing these skills correctly. Throughout the course are opportunities to do this. English grammar rules are covered and other writing improvement tips includi ng how to improve improper English and how to refine present skills. The communication process begins with the four regions of knowledge and basic type of communication patterns, special communications issues such as dealing with those in other language and culture groups that a street cop especially, might encounter along with public speaking, communicating with the media, and questioning and interviewing techniques for suspects. Finally, a section on active listening skills and hostage negotiations are explored along with law enforcement records that are used in the criminal justice system and the critical need of officers to understand how to use, fill in, and disperse appropriate records. Course ObjectivesÃ Upon completion of this course, you should be able to: Identify the basic communication process, and the concepts and rules in the law enforcersÃ¢â¬â¢ oral and written communication. Recognize proper usage of words and sentences in police correspondence. Recall the forma ts and templates used in reports, affidavits, search warrants and warrants of arrest. Name the barriers to communication and special communication issues. Specify the ultimate questions used in investigation and interrogation, and how to be an effective hostage negotiator. Course Schedule and Topics This course will cover the following topics in eight modules: Week 1: Module 1: Basic Communication in Law Enforcement Week 2: Module 2: Barriers to communication Week 3: Module 3: Special Communication Issues Week 4: Module 4: Communicating in Public Week 5: Module 5: Police Reporting Week 6: Module 6: Reports, Affidavits, Warrants, & Search Warrants Week 7: Module 7: Investigation and Interrogation Week 8: Module 8: Hostage Negotiations Study Guide COURSE - The course is divided into eight topic-related modules.Ã In general, each moduleÃ¢â¬â¢s concepts and material build cumulatively so a best approach to successful completion of the course is to study these modules in the same ord er as they appear in the Course Schedule and Topics.Ã Study any supplemental resources provided with your course to give you greater depth of understanding of the subject matter.Ã The course content is available to you at all times so that you may read ahead, and review assignments.Ã This will help you anticipate your work load and to understand how the course concepts are integrated and built upon one another.Ã TEXTBOOK - Your textbook may be in the form of hard copy or e-text. E-text means your textbook is accessed online. Some
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Darkness in Poe, Hawthorne, Melville and Dickinson Essay E. A. Poe, Hawthorne, Melville and E. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s works contain similar elements and images which can be related to the theme of darkness. These authors used these motives as their main subject throughout their works. Some of them led very gloomy and dark life so they used those experiences to utter their feelings by putting them on the paper. These poems and works can come across as kind of morbid at first sight so they will be thoroughly explained in the further text. E. A. Poe was labelled as immoral, crazy and depressive by his contemporaries partly because of his most famous poem Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ . Many of them considered PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour insane when actually he was just a version of Romantic period moody hero like Byron, Keats and Shelly, yet today those Ã¢â¬Å"insaneÃ¢â¬ people are called artists. His works were marked as spooky, spine-tingling and most importantly dark. Furthermore, a solid comparison can be made between 19th century horror writer Poe and 21th century horror writer Stephen King. Although centuries have passed the motif of darkness stays present. The Raven is a poem filled with dark, lonely and melancholic symbols. One of them to begin with is Gothic setting of the poem. Ã¢â¬Å"Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, / Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten loreÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;/ And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost like todayÃ¢â¬â¢s readers can see in films. One can picture a small cabin deep in the woods on a cold December night with nothing but one candle and a man like shadow which can be seen through the window. Nevertheless, it is a perfect prelude to a horror movie or in this case to a horror poem. In addition to dark setting there is a dark protagonist, a young man suffering a great amount of pain, more precisely loss of a loved woman. Any human would start to question himself and talk to himself as he did in all of that loneliness and misery, but the only reply he got from the raven is Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ . That word is pretty devastating for the man on the edge. The Raven itself is a bad omen, dark one since it gives volume to a dark, spooky, ghostly atmosphere. His black feathers are traditionally considered to be a magic sign of something evil, rotten and ill. For the tone Poe is looking for, the raven is perfectly suitable bird. It looks just like the night it came out of. Yet again the night is another motif in poem which is entirely dark in physical and psychological sense. Night represents mysterious and slightly dangerous power of nature and it fits perfectly in the poem. Poe does not choose to write a horror of a sunny afternoonÃ¢â¬â¢s setting. One of the first things one can notice while reading The Scarlet Letter is enormous amount of hypocrisy. The society itself is hypocritical, nothing is white or black, people lie and everyone wears a mask, so that can be interpreted as dark motif. There are many examples of collision of light and darkness throughout the novel. Light is used to describe and emphasize good qualities of a human within or present state of emotions. And on the other hand, dark is obviously opposite of that. For example there is a scene when Pearl turns her head away from bright sunlight after stepping out in her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s arms from the dark, gloomy prison. This shows the contrast between light and dark and also evokes pity for the baby and her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment. Ã¢â¬Å"She bore in her arms a child, a baby of some three months old, who winked and turned aside its little face from the too vivid light of day; because its existence, heretofore, had brought it acquainted only with the gray twilight of a dungeon, or other darksome apartment of the prison. Ã¢â¬ There is another example of light and dark in HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s description of Chillingsworth. She describes him as a devil-like figure with a black soul and eyes burning red like fire. Light and darkness represent change of behaviour and personality in a character and this is one of the best examples of that change. Chillingsworth becomes literally and figuratively dark and continues tormenting Dimmesdale. The forest in the novel is described as dark several times especially in comparison with the town. Everything happening outside of the town is considered to be dark which means sinful. For example, Hester who is a sinner in the eyes of society lives on the outskirts of town in the woods. Society dismissed her and marked her as an outcast. The fact she is living on a border of town and forest shows how certain people thought of her in certain situations. During the night she found refuge in the woods with Dimmesdale and during the day she was a sinner in the eyes of society in the town. The forest was seen as the place of evil by townsmen because it was unknown and mysterious. The wilderness of the forest is compared with the HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s moral wilderness. Ã¢â¬Å"She had wandered, without rule or guidance, in a moral wilderness; as vast, as intricate and shadowy, as the untamed forest. In Bartleby the Scrivener by Melville one can use doubling as a dark motif. The first example of doubles is Nippers and Turkey. They act like one person which is shown in the way they live their lives. Turkey is off in the morning because of the alcohol he drank the night before and Nippers is off in the afternoon because of his indigestion due to the lunch he had not so long before. They act like two faces of a coin. The second example and most important one is Bartleby. Melville is evoking him as a kind of phantom double. Descriptions of him represent him as either ghostly or a corpse, Ã¢â¬Å"cadaverousÃ¢â¬ . His indifference toward anything makes The Lawyer feel guilty and the act of understanding and helping Bartleby is just a way of satisfying his conscience. Isolation is also a dark motif in Bartleby the Scrivener. During the day Bartleby stares at the window facing the wall and during the night he sleeps in his office. In fact, this is a perfect picture of Wall Street and people who were really emotionally imprisoned because of their work. The last author to be explained is Emily Dickinson. She was beyond her time, left all alone in her world with nobody there to understand her. Her life was lonely and that, among all else, resulted in two nervous breakdowns. The poetry she wrote was full of dark and mysterious motives. One of her many poems called Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m Nobody, who are you? Ã¢â¬ can explain the core of Dickinson. Although this poem has element of comic sense to it, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not quite as comical as it seems. Here Dickinson has a light tone, childish voice and she invites reader to come to her dark side. The main thesis in this poem is the loss of identity and personality. Ã¢â¬Å¾Im Nobody! Who are you? / Are you Ã¢â¬â Nobody Ã¢â¬â too? / Then theres a pair of us! / Dont tell! theyd advertise Ã¢â¬â you know! Ã¢â¬Å" She is explaining that there is a pair of them, nobodies and outsiders. The speaker fears to reveal their identity because they will not be anonymous free-thinking Ã¢â¬Å"nobodiesÃ¢â¬ that they have chosen to be. It is not arguable that all of these authors were lonely and filled with pain due to certain tragedies but some of them felt it more than others. If every aspect of their lives is taken in consideration one should give a gold medal in darkness and despair to Poe and Dickinson. Nevertheless, all of them were human with real human emotions and their way of coping with pain was by writing it on a piece of paper. No matter how morbid and depressing these works are, they are works of art. It is important to remember how difficult it is to share your emotions publically and let every individual to interpret it in its own way, maybe even comparing it to its own life experiences. That is the beauty of it.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Admissions Essay -Ã Sojourn to Medicine Ã On the first day that I walked into the Church Nursing Home, I was unsure of what to expect. A jumble of questions ran through my mind simultaneously: Is this the right job for me? Will I be capable of aiding the elderly residents? Will I enjoy what I do? A couple of hours later, these questions were largely forgotten as I slowly cut chicken pieces and fed them to Frau Meyer. Soon afterwards, I was strolling through the garden with Herr Schmidt, listening to him tell of his tour of duty in World War II. By the end of the day, I realized how much I enjoyed the whole experience and at the same time smiled at the irony of it all. I needed to travel to Heidelberg, Germany to confirm my interest in clinical medicine. Ã Experiences like my volunteer work in the German nursing home illustrate the decisive role travel has played in my life. For instance, I had volunteered at a local hospital in New York but was not satisfied. Dreams of watching doctors in the ER or obstetricians in the maternity ward were soon replaced with the reality of carrying urine and feces samples to the lab. With virtually no patient contact, my exposure to clinical medicine in this setting was unenlightening and uninspiring. However, in Heidelberg, despite the fact that I frequently change diapers for the incontinent and deal with occasionally cantankerous elderly, I love my twice weekly visits to the nursing home. Here, I feel that I am needed and wanted. That rewarding feeling of fulfillment attracts me to the practice of medicine. Ã My year abroad in Germany also enriched and diversified my experience with research. Although I had a tremendously valuable exposure to research as a summer intern investigating chemotherapeutic resistance in human carcinomas, I found disconcerting the constant cost-benefit analysis required in applied biomedical research. In contrast, my work at the University of Heidelberg gave me a broader view of basic research and demonstrated how it can expand knowledge -- even without the promise of immediate profit. I am currently attempting to characterize the role of an enzyme during neural development. Even though the benefit of such research is not yet apparent, it will ultimately contribute to a vast body of information which will further medical science. Ã My different reactions to research and medicine just exemplify the intrinsically broadening impact of travel.