Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

The History of Water Pipes The earliest known evidence of a pipe being used for plumbing was found in Mesopotamia it is estimated to have been made around 3000 BC. The pipes were made from clay mixed with short lengths of straw. This was the first type of pipe to be used to transport water from different places. Both brass and copper pipes have been found in Egypt believed to have been constructed close to 2500 BC. The Romans used lead pipes, extensive use of lead pipe by joining sheets of lead into piping to carry their water supply and waste. Two millennia ago the ancient Romans made use of large aqueducts to transport water from higher elevations by building the aqueducts in graduated segments that allowed gravity to push the water along until it reached its destination later using them same idea in lead pipes building them under ground . Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long and a lower costing alternative to copper before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal and universal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions (reactions from exposure to air) between dissimilar metals see galvanic cell Hundreds of these were built throughout Europe and overseas and along with flour mills were considered the lifeline of the Roman Empire. The Chinese also made use of aqueducts and pipe systems for public works. The famous Han Dynasty court ordered in 145 AD that the engineer to construct a series of pipe networks and square pallet chain pumps outside the capital city of Luoyang. These chain pumps delivered water and waste around the city quiet and easy at a cheap cost, serviced t... ...cting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water. This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, such as a preservative in wine. Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals see cell. Bronze fittings and short pipe segments are commonly used in combination with various materials.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Depression Essay -- Depressed Illness Psychology Essays

â€Å"Mom is sad all the time. She cries a lot. Sometimes she doesn’t get up in the morning. She stays in bed until late in the afternoon with covers pulled up around her ears. At first I didn’t worry. She’d stay in bed for a day or two and then get up again, and I’d think she was better. But after a couple of weeks, she didn’t eat much any more, and she stayed in her room most of the time†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ â€Å"She has something called depression† (DenBoer, Helen 1-2).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most people today do not think that depression is an illness. In fact most people think that depression is a moral failure. â€Å"Some 400,000 patients are treated for depression in the United States annually, most as outpatients and most by non-psychiatric physicians† (Hollister, Leo E 80). In 1989, major depression cost the nation at least $27 billion in medical care, worker absenteeism, and related costs. In 2002, â€Å"as many as 14 million people in the United States had symptoms of depression, resulting in a prevalence rate of 3% to 7% of the general population. This led to a loss of approximately $40 billion dollars a year in productivity (Breen, Robert and McCormac, Rupert 1). Everyone at one time or another has felt depressed, sad, or blue. Being depressed is a normal reaction to loss, life's struggles, or an injured self-esteem. But sometimes the feeling of sadness becomes intense, lasting for long periods of time and preventing a person from leading a normal life. In fact depression is often considered a "female disease," since affected women reportedly outnumber men by four to one. Yet male depression may be more. â€Å"Many men try to hide their condition, thinking it unmanly to act moody. And it works: National studies suggest that doctors miss the diagnosis in men a full 70% of the time† (Real, Terrance 1). But male depression also stays hidden because men tend to express depression differently than women do. Depressed women are more likely to talk abut their problems and reach out for help, while depressed men will often turn to some action or substance for relief. Men often attempt to escape pain by overusing alcohol or drugs, working exces sively or seeking extramarital affairs. They go into isolation, withdrawing from loved ones, and they may lash out, becoming irritable or violent (Real, Terrance 1). The American National Institute of National health has defined depression as an illness that invo... ...,000 possible; many suicides are not reported† (Hollister 80). Suicide often isn’t listed as the cause of death, even if it suspected as it doesn’t reflect the number of people who commit suicide by not eating, by abusing alcohol and medications, or by simply losing the will to live. Because of the low energy levels and impeded thought process that accompany severe depression, a patient may be unable to act on their suicidal thoughts at first. Close monitoring in such cases is very important. Depression in all its forms affects a lot of people around the world. It is an illness that has gone untreated and unrecognized for a long time. Depression affects the lives of the people affected and puts a burden on the community and family members. It is important for everyone to recognize that depression is an illness that requires treatment and assistance. It is perhaps the most common medical condition seen by primary care physicians today, and rapidly evolving drug therapy present management challenges. However at least newer medications are good, helpful and carry fewer risks with small side effects. Accurate diagnosis still remains the main focus point for effective patient care.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Evaluating Published Research Problems

Individual Assignment: Evaluating Published Research Problems Locate two research studies in your discipline or your field of study—one study must use a qualitative method and one study must use a quantitative method. Each study must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Perform the following with each study: Review of Contemporary Curriculum Research Qualitative Research Study Identify the research problem.Smith’s (2007) research study on â€Å"Support Services for Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in Higher Education† problem focus is on type of services or accommodations that are being provided for students who have been diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) and if these services are addressing the needs of the students. The study was conducted to inform Disability Support offices of what services are necessary for the population of AS higher education students to support them in their educational journey in higher education.Summarize the basis for the problem. Smith (2007) states that there has been an increase in diagnosis of AS. The Americans with (Powell, Higgins, & Aram, 2009)Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) provides that individuals with AS cannot be discriminated against in obtaining higher education and that services and accomodations need to be offered to those students diagnoses with AS to have assistance in achieving their education both inside and outside the classroom.Smith (2007) further states that AS was only recognized about 20 years ago and in that short period of time there has not been any significant studies done concerning the impact of student achievement in the post secondary educational field. Evaluate the clarity and completeness of how the problem was described. Smith (2007) addresses the problem by explaining in detail the behaviors displayed by students who have been diagnoses with AS.Smith further explains how the behaviors of AS students affect their ability to be successful in a nor mal educational environment if the educators are not trained on providing accommodations that would assist with their learning process. Smith (2007) also addresses the issue of a growing number of AS students entering higher education and the need for the Office of Access and Learning Accommodations (OALA) to provide services that will address the needs of all types of disabilities. Smith is specific and direct regarding the services that would be specifically needed by AS students.Explain how the problem was addressed through designing and conducting a research study. Smith (2007) states the methodology used was an exploratory study evaluating and determining what type of accommodations, services and programs assistance were offered to AS post-secondary students. Surveys were emailed to staff members of the institutions Disabled Student Services offices. There was a letter sent with the survey explaining the purpose of the research and consent statements for the individuals acknowl edging the information was being used as a study.Smith gathered qualitative data regarding programs, support groups and counseling that was currently being provided to AS students. The surveys also gathered data regarding the types of accommodations provided to students to assess if the services provided were addressing the specific needs of AS students Smith (2007) concluded from the research that although accommodations were being provided for AS students, the accommodations provided were not taking into consideration some of the individual students needs. Quantitative Research ProblemIdentify the research problem. Powell, Higgins and Aram’s (2009) research study, â€Å"Impact of No Child Left Behind on Curriculum and Instuction in Rural Schools† examines the decisions made by rural principals and teachers regarding curriculum and instruction and the impact No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) had. Powell, Higgins and Aram focus was if there was significate impact on the instructional time, non-instructional time and if student motivation expereinced any negative effect resulting from the demands of NCLB. Summarize the basis for the problem.Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) reported that twenty-five percent of the schools in the U. S. are rural schools. The retention of qualified teachers and students achieving the Average Yearly Progress (AYP) set by NCLB had a greater impact due to the lower percentages within the schools, than compared to the schools in larger cities and suburbs. Powell, Higgins and Aram further state that the rural schools in Missouri they used for their study, had an increase of minority students over a ten year period of over 120% compared to the average increase nationwide of only 54%.Powell, Higgins and Aram wanted to exam the overall impact of NCLB on the two rural schools in two completely different areas of the U. S. and exam the correlation between the NCLB and how curriculum and instruction were influenced. Evaluate the c larity and completeness of how the problem was described. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) study of the influence NCLB had on the decision making process of the principals regarding curriculum and instruction in rural schools described the problems associated with the AYP expectations set by NCLB.The study surveyed the teachers and principals on specific areas of the curriculum and if there was an increase in the test scores of the students on both math and reading scores. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) further stated that NCLB created additional problems such as teachers leaving the teaching profession and others not entering the teaching profession due to the change in climate within the teaching environment. Explain how the problem was addressed through designing and conducting a research study.Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) research consisted of a survey that was sent to 571 principals in Missouri, of which 101 responded. They also gathered data from 76 certified teachers in Ma ine. 14 of 16 rural counties in Maine were represented in the research. About 76% of the principals surveyed were from Free and Reduced Lunch (FRL) and Title 1 schools, supporting the sampling of high minority student demographics. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) further surveyed the principals on how NCLB impacted their decision making process regarding curriculum and instruction both before and after NCLB. Evaluating Published Research Problems ?Individual Assignment: Evaluating Published Research Problems Locate two research studies in your discipline or your field of study—one study must use a qualitative method and one study must use a quantitative method. Each study must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Perform the following with each study: Review of Contemporary Curriculum Research Qualitative Research Study Identify the research problem.Smith’s (2007) research study on â€Å"Support Services for Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in Higher Education† problem focus is on type of services or accommodations that are being provided for students who have been diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) and if these services are addressing the needs of the students. The study was conducted to inform Disability Support offices of what services are necessary for the population of AS higher education students to support them in their educational journey in higher education.Summariz e the basis for the problem. Smith (2007) states that there has been an increase in diagnosis of AS. The Americans with (Powell, Higgins, & Aram, 2009)Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) provides that individuals with AS cannot be discriminated against in obtaining higher education and that services and accomodations need to be offered to those students diagnoses with AS to have assistance in achieving their education both inside and outside the classroom.Smith (2007) further states that AS was only recognized about 20 years ago and in that short period of time there has not been any significant studies done concerning the impact of student achievement in the post secondary educational field. Evaluate the clarity and completeness of how the problem was described. Smith (2007) addresses the problem by explaining in detail the behaviors displayed by students who have been diagnoses with AS.Smith further explains how the behaviors of AS students affect their ability to be successful in a no rmal educational environment if the educators are not trained on providing accommodations that would assist with their learning process. Smith (2007) also addresses the issue of a growing number of AS students entering higher education and the need for the Office of Access and Learning Accommodations (OALA) to provide services that will address the needs of all types of disabilities. Smith is specific and direct regarding the services that would be specifically needed by AS students.Explain how the problem was addressed through designing and conducting a research study. Smith (2007) states the methodology used was an exploratory study evaluating and determining what type of accommodations, services and programs assistance were offered to AS post-secondary students. Surveys were emailed to staff members of the institutions Disabled Student Services offices. There was a letter sent with the survey explaining the purpose of the research and consent statements for the individuals acknow ledging the information was being used as a study.Smith gathered qualitative data regarding programs, support groups and counseling that was currently being provided to AS students. The surveys also gathered data regarding the types of accommodations provided to students to assess if the services provided were addressing the specific needs of AS students Smith (2007) concluded from the research that although accommodations were being provided for AS students, the accommodations provided were not taking into consideration some of the individual students needs. Quantitative Research ProblemIdentify the research problem. Powell, Higgins and Aram’s (2009) research study, â€Å"Impact of No Child Left Behind on Curriculum and Instuction in Rural Schools† examines the decisions made by rural principals and teachers regarding curriculum and instruction and the impact No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) had. Powell, Higgins and Aram focus was if there was significate impact on the instructional time, non-instructional time and if student motivation expereinced any negative effect resulting from the demands of NCLB. Summarize the basis for the problem.Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) reported that twenty-five percent of the schools in the U. S. are rural schools. The retention of qualified teachers and students achieving the Average Yearly Progress (AYP) set by NCLB had a greater impact due to the lower percentages within the schools, than compared to the schools in larger cities and suburbs. Powell, Higgins and Aram further state that the rural schools in Missouri they used for their study, had an increase of minority students over a ten year period of over 120% compared to the average increase nationwide of only 54%.Powell, Higgins and Aram wanted to exam the overall impact of NCLB on the two rural schools in two completely different areas of the U. S. and exam the correlation between the NCLB and how curriculum and instruction were influenced. Evaluate the clarity and completeness of how the problem was described. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) study of the influence NCLB had on the decision making process of the principals regarding curriculum and instruction in rural schools described the problems associated with the AYP expectations set by NCLB.The study surveyed the teachers and principals on specific areas of the curriculum and if there was an increase in the test scores of the students on both math and reading scores. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) further stated that NCLB created additional problems such as teachers leaving the teaching profession and others not entering the teaching profession due to the change in climate within the teaching environment. Explain how the problem was addressed through designing and conducting a research study.Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) research consisted of a survey that was sent to 571 principals in Missouri, of which 101 responded. They also gathered data from 76 certified teachers in M aine. 14 of 16 rural counties in Maine were represented in the research. About 76% of the principals surveyed were from Free and Reduced Lunch (FRL) and Title 1 schools, supporting the sampling of high minority student demographics. Powell, Higgins and Aram (2009) further surveyed the principals on how NCLB impacted their decision making process regarding curriculum and instruction both before and after NCLB.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Statments of Problems and Primary Source Evidence

Following the Civil War white southeners restricted African Americans’ freedom: -Louisana Black Codes Reinstate Provision of The Slace Era, 1865, pg. 6 – Lucy McMillian, A Former Slave in South Carolina, Tesitifes About White Violence, 1871, pg. 13 During the late nineteenth century the American west expirnced significant conflict: -Katie Bighead (Cheyenne) Remebers Custer and the battle of Little Bighorn,1876, pg. 1 -Wyoming Gunfight: An Attack on Chinatown,1885, pg. 45 Supporters of imperialism claimed it was necessary that United States wield it’s influence abroad: -President William Mckinley Asks for War to liberate Cuba, 1898 pg. 107 -Governor Theodore Roosevelt Praises the Manly Virtues of Imperialism, 1899, pg. 108Critics of Imperialsim contened that American Foreigh policy undermined the nation’s abroad: -The American Anti-Imperialist League Denounces U. S. Policy, 1899, pg. 110 -Mark Twain Stirzes â€Å" The Battle Hymn of the Republic. † 1 900 pg. 111 During the late nineteenth century immigrants anticipated oppurtunities in the United States: -A Slovenian Boy Remebers Tales of the Golden Country,1909 pg. 81 -Chinese Immigrant Lee Chew Denounces Prejudice in America, 1882, pg. 72During the late nineteenth century immigrants faced harsh challenges in the United States: -Immigrant Thomas O’Donell Laments the worker’s Plight, 1883 pg. 74 -Immigrants Crowd together-By Choice, or Not? Pg. 77 As the United States expierenced rapid industrial growth, ordinary laborers endured exploitaive working conditions: -Immigrant Thomas O’Donell Laments the worker’s Plight, 1883 pg. 74 -Jurgis Rudkus Disovers Drink in The Jungle, 1905 pg. 79 All from the book â€Å"major problems†.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Baba and Nyonya Culture

HISTORY OF BABA & NYONYA Peranakan and Baba Nyonya in chinese ( / baba niang re) are terms used for the descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese  immigrants to the Nusantara region during the Colonial era. In both  Malay and  Indonesian, ‘Peranakan’ is defined as ‘descendant’ with no connotation of the ethnicity of descent unless followed by a subsequent qualifying noun, such as for example  Cina  (Chinese),  Belanda(Dutch) or  Jepang/Jepun  (Japanese). Baba  is a Persian loan-word borrowed by  Malaysian as an honorific solely for grandparents; it was used to refer to the Straits-Chinese males.Female Straits-Chinese descendants were either called or styled themselves  Nyonyas. The word  nyonya  (also commonly misspelled  nonya) is a  Javanese  loan honorific word from Italian  Nona  (grandma) meaning: foreign married Madam. Language The language of the Peranakans,  Baba Malay (Bahasa Melayu Baba), is a  creole dialect of the  Malay language (Bahasa Melayu), which contains many  Hokkien words. It is a dying language, and its contemporary use is mainly limited to members of the older generation. Culture 1. ClothingThe Nyonya’s clothing was identical to that of the native Malay’s: baju panjang (long dress), batik sarung (batik wrap-around skirt) and kerongsang (brooch). Beaded slippers called  Kasut Manek  were a hand-made made with much skill and patience: strung, beaded and sewn onto canvas with tiny faceted glass beads from  Bohemia (present-day  Czech Republic). 2. Religion Baba Nyonya subscribed to Chinese beliefs: Taoism, Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism, celebrated the  Lunar New Year and the  Lantern Festival, while adopting the customs of the land they settled in, as well as those of their colonial rulers.There are traces of Portuguese, Dutch, British, Malay and Indonesian influences in Baba culture. A certain number of Baba Nonya families were and st ill are, Catholic. 3. Food From the Malay influence a unique  Ã¢â‚¬ Nyonya† cuisine has developed using typical Malay spices. Examples are Chicken Kapitan, a dry chicken  curry, and Inchi Kabin, a Nyonya version of fried chicken.. Swikee Purwodadi is a peranakan dish from  Purwodadi, it is a frog soup dish. INTRODUCTION TO BABA & NYONYA WEDDING The wedding ceremony of the Peranakan is largely based on Chinese tradition, and is one of the most colourful wedding ceremonies in Malaysia and Singapore.The traditional Peranakan wedding is a 12-day affair which is usually carried out in the bride's house, where ceremonies like the Lap Chai (exchange of gifts) and Cheo Thau (coming of age) are carried out. The Cheo Thau ceremony is one of the most important ceremonies and marks the first occasion when the bride and bridegroom will wear their authentic wedding robes. The actual wedding ceremony will only take place before noon that day, after the Cheo Thau ceremony. Next, follow s the Chim Pang ceremony which marks the first meeting between the couple where the bride would lead the groom into the bridal chamber where he would unveil her.Together they would be served tea and a bowl of kueh ee – small white and red dumplings in a sweet broth. The third ceremony takes place in the bridal chamber. This is called Chia Sia. This ceremony is amusing and unique because friends and guests of the bridegroom would gather in the room and tease the bride with the hope of inducing laughter from the bride. The finale of the wedding ceremony, would be the â€Å"dua belas hari† or Twelfth Day ceremony, where the marriage would be confirmed and approved by proof of the bride's virginity.Firstly, the bride's parents would invite the bridegroom's mother to inspect a handkerchief (known as aBim Poh) collected from the wedding bed. The handkerchief will be placed on a tray and presented to the bridegroom's mother for inspection, where she would be invited to perfor m a test by squeezing lime juice on the handkerchief in hope of ascertaining the authencity of the stain. Exchanging of gifts between both the family. Gorgeous hand embroidered beaded shoes (kasut manik)

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Price War Essay

How should a company try to deal with the threat of a price war? Fontinelle (2010) believed that price war has a big impact which leads to a string of price reduction that vaporizes the profit margins. There are some solutions which can cope with the menace of a price war. To start with, Rao et al. (2000) showed that the manager of a company should take into account of other options before answering the price cuts call. The manager should consider matching price cut is a good choice or not before deciding. Moreover, additional information about the price war is needed to be figured out immediately. Does the discounted price apply for a short period of time or long term? In addition, the terms and conditions for the promotion are also involved. For example, Starbucks drove their customers crazy because of the 50% discount Frappuccino in happy hour campaign. In addition, it also attracts more new customers. Meanwhile, their competitors should consider about applying the same strategy or do nothing. The competitor’s managers must be particularly careful as the threat of price war is high. In addition, they may get more disadvantages instead of advantages as if their brand is not as strong as Starbucks. Misreading the competitor’s purposes which is one of the main factor causes price war can lead to unavoidable price war (Little, 2003). Therefore, correct information about competitor’s intentions must be obtained carefully. The reason behind the price cuts must be figured out to have the right respond. With the same example above, the competitors’ managers should research in detail about Starbucks promotion campaign to have their suitable marketing strategy. According to Rao et al. (2000), marketing communication strategy plays an important role in ensuring the competitors understand the reason behind the company pricing tactics which assists in avoiding a price war. Advertisement should not only focus on the price but also the quality and benefits of the product. Therefore, the companies should selectively reveal their strategy intentions in the purpose of staying away from price reductions. To avoid igniting a price war, Swartz (2012) claimed that products are required to be differentiated. It means that the products must be customized to become outstanding in the market share. Although other traders may offer products which are similar to those competitors are selling, it doesn’t necessarily mean the company must serve identical products or services. Therefore, there are many ways of differentiation in order to make the customers realize which product is more valuable to purchase. Rao et al. (2000) pointed out that awareness of customer’s level of price sensitivities is also important. To carry out a successful pricing strategy, a company must first comprehend the basic understanding of customer perception of price sensitivity. This changes when new competitors enter the current market as company have to be aware of other competitors pricing strategy as well. As a conclusion, companies should keep clear of price wars as it can be difficult to manage as soon as price wars begin to gain a head start. Arguments between companies regarding price wars should be handled calmly to avoid unnecessary conflicts. As a side benefit, it would also reduce the chances of initiating price wars.

Theories and Principles that Govern Ethical Decision Making in Research Paper

Theories and Principles that Govern Ethical Decision Making in Medicine - Research Paper Example the systematic inquiry into man’s moral behavior with the purpose of discovering the rules that ought to govern human action and the goods that are worth seeking in human life†. These ethical standards governing the existence of human life also encompass the realm of medical entities. This essay is written to present the underlying theoretical concepts and principles governing ethical decision making in the field of medicine. In addition, it aims to determine the ways in which conflicts of interest inherent in various financial and organizational arrangements for the practice of medicine can pose threats to the medical professionalism. There are basically five underlying theoretical framework for ethical decision making in the medical profession, to wit: deontological theory (what one must do, based on duties and obligations), teleological theory (the purpose or consequences of the moral acts), consequentialist theory (the moral value of an act, rule or policy is to be found in its consequences, not in intentions or motives), virtue ethics (seen in the way we feel is the ‘right’ way to behave towards patients and to colleagues) and casuistry (or case based reasoning, does not focus on rules and theories but rather on practical decision-making in particular cases based on precedent). (Slowther, et.al. 2004) Slowther, et.al. (2004) averred that â€Å"Beauchamp and Childress’ Four Principles approach is one of the most widely used frameworks and offers a broad consideration of medical ethics issues generally, not just for use in a clinical setting†. These principles are: â€Å"(1) respect for autonomy: respecting the decision-making capacities of autonomous persons; enabling individuals to make reasoned informed choices), (2) beneficence: balancing benefits of treatment against the risks and costs; the healthcare professional should act in a way that benefits the patient, (3) non maleficence: avoiding causing harm; the healthcare professional should not